• كلمة الدكتور

    كلمة الدكتور كمال الأسطل:

    نسعى جاهدين لدعم الطالب الفلسطيني في كافة المجالات ، واستغلال التكنولوجيا المعلوماتية لذلك قمنا بانشاء الموقع الالكتروني , ويحتوي على مميزات عديدة من اجل ...
  • التفاعل والمشاركة

  • CV - السيرة الذاتية

الأربعاء24-10-2018

   خدمات الموقع

عزيزي الزائر الكريم يمكنك استخدام الخدمات التالية
  مراسلة الدكتور كمال الأسطل

  يمكنك التمتع بمزيد من الخدمات بعد التسجيل

  ملاحظة: ترسل جميع الملفات والأبحاث عل الإيميل التالي:
kamaltopic@gmail.com



  أقسام الموقع

الرئيسية
اصدارات
مذكرات
العائلة والأسرة
البوابة الالكترونية
المناهج والدراسات الجامعية
إستشارات وآراء
معرفة وحكم
Researches
قضايا
السيرة الذاتية - CV
الجديد في الفكر والسياسة

Theoretical Viewpoint Towards a General Framework of Palestine Foreign Policy -Dr Kamal M Al-Astal

 تاريخ النشر: 17/1/2011   وقت 8:17:03 مساءً   | طباعة |  ارسل لصديق

Theoretical Viewpoint Toward a General Framework

for the Palestinian Foreign Policy

 

by

Kamal al-Astal (Ph.D.)

Professor and Political Adviser  

1999

Introduction:

The traditional political approach has accustomed to view the foreign policy as a phenomena that cannot be subjected to scientific study. This logic has dominated the study of foreign policy for a long time. It is built upon foreign policy being the program of  a political leadership towards the international world. The program includes the objectives and means used, and it portrays what it should be.

            Science has nothing to do with analyzing such programs as science concerns itself with the facts hidden in the reality. Thus this type of study is a mere description of the foreign policy for a long time. It follows either a chronological order of those policies or it points out the technical value objectives.

            As from mid 1950s, this approach has been subjected to main criticism based upon that foreign policy is a phenomena that can be scientifically analyzed. Saying that foreign policy is the work program of the State does not eliminate that this program is a phenomena subject to description, interpretation and scientific prediction. By nature, the International Unit, whether in the State or otherwise, is the authority that follows up on those programs. Those programs constitute a phenomena that can be defined, its sources can be analyzed, and its streams can be logically predicted. Moreover, those programs include more than what is to be. The International Unit deals with a defined external world so as to influence it. Thus, the Unit involves in an intricate  net of communication that enjoys a staunch position in the world, but this situation is not the desired one. Therefore comes the question of how could one interpret the difference between the current situation and what is, and the desired situation and what it should be? This is one of the main questions that scientific planning, and analysis of the international policy raises. The International Unit either in the Palestinian State or elsewhere does not stop at one idea of what it should be, but it shifts from one idea to another. How this change can be interpreted? Could it be predicted? For this, scientific planning and analysis of the Palestinian foreign policy includes many major dimension that I would like to discuss as follows:

First: Theoretical introduction on foreign policy: decision making and tools used.

Second: The Palestinian foreign policy: importance, description, and planning.

Third: Planning the Palestinian foreign policy.

Fourth: General principles that the Palestinian State will consider in its policy and relations with the other States according to the international low.

            The significance of this concise study comes from its view to the internal and external political work, particularly that this period of time  represents a historical development in the way of establishing the independent Palestinian State.

 

 

Section One

Theoretical Introduction: Meanings of Foreign Policy

and the Palestinian Foreign Policy

 

What does the term foreign policy means?

Foreign policy is the declared work program selected by official representatives of the International Unit/State, from a number of the available program alternatives, to achieve the objectives in the international world.

1- Political movements by the Palestinian leadership in the international world.

2- Law of jungle controls the international world. International political work means snatching gains or protecting oneself against current expected aggression (for example, the settlements).

3- Necessity of distinguishing between three related levels of international political work as follows:

First: Formulation of foreign policy:

This level could be an alternative to planning of foreign policy. It means three groups of operations as follows:

(a) Goals which the Palestinian leadership endeavor to achieve at the international level.

(b) Vertical order of those goals according to their relations with each other.

(c) Clear and well built structure of the elements of the Palestinian national security framework.

Goals of Palestinian Foreign Policy: Theoretical Analysis:

What does the term international policy means?

The goals are the situation s that the Palestinian State wishes to achieve at the international level, by influencing the international system or the international level (State, international organizations, national liberation movements, trans-national companies, international law personalities, etc.) This could by achieved by making available some sources so as to change the desire towards a goal. Analysis of the goals of the foreign policy includes many fundamental dimensions as follows: Who sets the goals of foreign policy? Who implements them? Who directly benefits from their implementation? What are their topics? What are their directions? What are their implication? What is their relative importance?

            The goals of the foreign policy deal with a number of phenomena and relations that the International Unit/State tries to influence in its futuristic situations. Those goals may be related to five types of phenomena as follows:

(a) Region: Protection of regional unity of the State and restore the occupied territories or occupy new land.

(b) Political System: Protection of a current political system, or attempt influencing the political system of another State, or attempt dissipating a certain ideology.

(c) Natural Resources: Gain external materialistic resources by guaranteeing petrol influx or supporting commercial relations with other States.

(d) Human Resources: Deals with population in general. This includes supporting the minorities in another State, demanding self-determination for them, and exchange prisoners of war, and support the armed forces.

(h) International Status: Support the international status of the State, or support international peace and security, or achieve integration with other States.

Second: Process of Foreign Policy Decision-making:

The political decision represents the determined well of the authority to solve a certain problem. It is made of three components:

(a) It is the well of the political leadership to embrace real life.

(b) It proposes a certain political problem in time, place and subject.

(c) It is an administrative determination to tackle a problem, a difficulty, or an obstacle in the face of the political movement.

            Undoubtedly, political decision making is wider than the decision because the decision means outputs  related with situations, but the decision making means all what the inputs and outputs and their reactions in a certain situation.

            Attempting distinguishing between types of the political decision and their relation with the foreign policy, we must differentiate between three changeable:

First: Continuity.

Second: Nature of decision: initiative or reaction.

Third: Priorities.

We can distinguish between the following images of political decision:

First: Decisive decision: This decision means frank confrontation with the given situation so as to end the problem wholeheartedly. It is the peak of any political movement. It is obvious that such a decision is taken in problems related to national security.

Second: Postponement decision: This decision seeks to delay solving any problem to sometime later. It is a postponement of the real confrontation to a more adequate time. This delay could be referred to the international agreements or to the disability or lack of readiness for the confrontation.

Third: Compromise decision: This decision means playing on words to reach a solution. It does not elevate up to the level of the decisive decision, and does not mean postponement.

Third: Conduct Foreign Policy:

Conducting the foreign policy has a dual meaning; on the one hand, its an internal activity towards an external movement., and on the other hand, it means relating the initiative with the implementation.

            In its structure and characteristics, the external decision begins internally then it moves to the political body to go with the meaning of the political decision, so as to leave a difference between the international political work and the internal political life. Thus, each political decision at the international level enjoys two practical sides: The one is international and the other is internal. This leads us to question the tools of implementing the foreign policy. Though the question looks academic, but it is related to the political reality. To answer this question, one may distinguish between six tools. Though each tool has its independent function, the tools are related to each other.

First: Negotiation or bargain.

Second: Economic pressure.

Third: Information and propaganda.

Fourth: International organizations.

Fifth: Encourage local separation movements.

Sixth: Combat and war.

            We can summarize the general framework of the international political work in the following points:

(1) Cheapest tools are preferable.

(2) Coordination between tools of foreign policy.

(3) Essence of external work represents the negotiation process.

(4) International political work represents a translation of the methods of implementing the work.

(5) International political work may mean regional political work or a dual coordination or summit conferences.

(6) International political work could be a high voice diplomacy or a dirty diplomacy.

Section Two

Palestinian Foreign Policy: importance, description, codes, aims, principles, boundaries, tools, implementation, distribution

 

First: Importance of Foreign Policy to the Palestinian State:

What convinced me to write this book is the great importance and central position of the foreign policy in the framework of the general policy of the State. This is due to many factors including the following:

1- Foreign policy plays a progressive role. For example, Palestinian foreign policy benefited from the donor countries in implementing the development plan in Palestine.

2- Foreign policy plays an essential role in supporting the Palestinian national independence.

3- Foreign policy plays a role in securing the international interests of the Palestinian State.

4- Foreign policy takes part in achieving national integration and political stability in the face of any danger or enemy. This situation may lead the people to stand in support of the foreign policy player against the enemy. (It is noticeable that national unity pushed the Palestinian people and the majority of PLO factions to stand with Arafat as a leader and a national symbol).

5- Foreign policy plays a role in giving Palestine a position in the world system. The international recognition that PLO gained and the Palestinian declaration of independence, and the recognition by more than half of the countries of the world support this point.

6- Foreign policy plays an internal political role in supporting the authority of decision making and in granting legality to the internal authority.

Second: Description of Palestinian Foreign Policy and Methods of its Decision-making.

This means that the political dimensions of the international political work. Those dimensions include public directions, aims, international roles, strategies and decisions, behavior and other things. All of those elements can be described scientifically. The Palestinian foreign policy decision making could go through steps like the following:

1- External incentive: This incentive may take another form in regular conditions (economic crisis, natural disaster, behavior by another country, etc.)

2- Decision-making: The decision-maker has to understand the incentive, or the occasion of decision, otherwise the incentive will remain valueless.

3- Data collection: Collecting data on the incentive to understand the opportunities and threats created by the incentive.

4- Information interpretation: Information gathered have to be interpreted to assure its truths and relate them to each other.

5- Alternative seeking and decision-making: This could take place by many methods including the analytical method, epistemological method, and organizational method. Each one of those methods enjoys a rule of decision-making different from the two alternative method.

(a) Analytical method: Decision-maker searches comprehensively about imagined alternatives, then reviews those expectations. The decision -maker decides the values that can be affected by the decision and the significance of each value. After analysis, the decision is taken by maximization.

(b) Epistemological method: Decision-maker searches for alternatives that accommodate with his ideological believes, experience and previous imagination. Thus, decision-maker rejects the other alternatives, and he builds his decision upon analogy with his ideology.

(c) Organizational method: Decision-maker uses standards operating procedures of the international policy decision-making. It is a selection of expenditure and benefit, or traditional analogy, but this goes through already prepared programs of work and selection. The following table clarifies methods of foreign policy decision-making:

Methods of foreign policy decision-making

 

Analytical Method

Epistemological Method

Organizational Method

Search for information and alternatives

Search for all the information needed and alternatives related to the problem

Search for the information and alternatives that accommodate with the ideology of the decision-maker

Organized concentration on a number of alternatives

Evaluation of the information and alternatives

Comprehensive count of all benefits, costs and expectations resulting from each alternative

Limited and consecutive count depending on the ideology; paying more attention to the information and alternatives that accommodates with the ideological belief

Limited count based upon previous experience. It is programmed as a regular work procedure.

Risks

Risk is to be counted regardless of the exceptions of loss and gain.

Risk is to be accepted based upon the ideological belief.

Risk is to be avoided and concentration is to be given to the main objective

Decision

Maximization of benefits or loses

Analogizing with belief

Satisfying alternatives

Decision

Maximizing benefits

Analogizing with belief

Satisfactory equivalent

 

Foreign policy decision-making by any of those methods depends upon several factors including the following:

1- Clarity of objectives and possibility of deciding certain priorities, and possibility of real alternatives for one situation.

2- Adherence of the decision-maker in a group of political believes regarding solving the problem.

3- Nature of decision-making when decision-maker is uncertain about the structure he will go for the epistemological method.

4- Availability of certain programs to deal with sudden situations. With those programs, the decision-maker selects the organizational method.

5- Those three methods are “ideal.” However, they could strongly mix together.

In short, decision-making represents a significance for foreign policy decision-making, and the operation of decision-making or the operation of selecting between the alternatives.

Third: Objectives of the Palestinian Foreign Policy:

Foreign policy of any State tackles two objectives as follows:

First: Safeguard the independence and security of the State.

Second: Safeguard the economic interests.

            Those two objectives represent the bottom line of the objectives of the foreign policy. The objectives could be divided into strategic, medium range and short range; they also could be viewed as major and minor. When we consider the objectives of the Palestinian foreign policy, we have to take into consideration he following points:

First: Determining the objectives of the Palestinian foreign policy gives room for foreign policy-makers to imagine possible policies. Determining a number of objectives leads to determine given alternatives to achieve such objectives. Though the objectives can be reached across a number of unparalleled alternatives, it excludes -- by necessity-- another group of alternatives.

Second: Determining the objectives of foreign policy to the International Unit/State (e.g. Palestine) gives room to elevate that Unit. Foreign policy cannot be evaluated without criteria for such evaluation, the criteria being the objective of the Unit.

Third: Declared objectives of the State constitute main part of foreign policy.

Fourth: Determining a number of declared objectives, even if it is unreal, abides the International Unit in front of the international society, a matter which prevents them from withdrawing in the future. Such policies, then, lead the Unit to adopt policies that accommodate with the declared objectives.

Fifth: Mobilization towards achieving a certain objective constitutes an indicative of the truth of the objective towards the Palestinian State.

            It is worth saying that the objectives of the Palestinian foreign policy must be concentrated in one central objective and other minor or complementary objectives:

1- Accomplish the phase of the national liberation and achieve freedom and Palestinian national independence.

2- Accomplish the international recognition of the Palestinian State, and gain full membership in the UN and other international arenas.

3- Reserve the Palestinian national security and the entity of the newly born Palestinian State.

4- Support efforts of economic development. This objective represents the main pillar of the Palestinian foreign policy. It help in building up, developing and improving the institutions and the economic skeleton of the Palestinian State.

5- Gain regional authenticity to open new horizons of fruitful cooperation with the neighboring countries, and eliminate opportunities that regional powers may find to interfere in the affairs of the Palestinian State.

6- Gain Arab, Muslim, regional and the international support for the sovereign independent Palestinian State.

7- Establish some kind of cooperation with the various countries to solve all the political and developmental issues.

8- Solve all problems of the final phase to safeguard the Palestinian national rights, particularly the question of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), and the refugees.

9- Build up relations of understanding and good neighborhood and establish friendships and cooperation with the other countries.

10- Encourage regional cooperation and abstain from using force or threatening of using force against other countries.

11- Maintain international peace and security.

Fourth: Principles of Palestinian Foreign Policy:

The main principles of the Palestinian foreign policy can be summarized in the following points:

1- State of Palestine is an Arab State. Palestine is an inseparable part of the Arab nation and its culture and civilization. Its current aspirations are achieving its objectives of liberation, development, democracy and unity.

2- State of Palestine declares its commitment with the Arab League charter, and joint work.

3- State of Palestine declares its commitment with the principles and objectives of the UN, and the International declaration of human rights, and also its commitment with the principles and policy of the non-aligned movement.

4- State of Palestine is a peace-loving State committed to the principles of peaceful coexistence.

5- State of Palestine believes in solving the international and regional problems  with peaceful means following UN charter and resolutions.

6- State of Palestine refuses the threat by force, or violence or terror or using them against peace of its territories and political independence, or against the peace of any other State, and thus keeps her rights of defending her territories.

7- State of Palestine endeavors to establish relations of cooperation and friendship with all countries and always endeavors to maximize the circle of friends and to minimize the circle of enemies and non-friends.

8- State of Palestine commits herself with keep off the military alliances against any neighboring country.

9- State of Palestine is committed to encourage the peaceful relations and regional cooperation in the region and with the neighboring countries.

10- State of Palestine is a state with full sovereignty, and it is open to the world.

Fifth: Boundaries and Interpretation of Palestinian Foreign Policy:

Scientific interpretation of the foreign policy is considered the core of the science of foreign policy. This means deciding a number of changes that influence the Palestinian foreign policy, and analyzing the negative impact of those changes on that policy. In this context, a question rises: Is the Palestinian foreign policy forced according to modes of the political leader, or according to other framework boundaries that can be scientifically analyzed and understood? In reality, the traditional school is inclined to over weight. Followers of this school, foreign policy is a number of disconnected behaviors that cannot be subjected to the scientific analysis because it raises as a result of changeable personal priorities of the political leader. But subjecting the foreign policy to scientific analysis in the past 25 years or so, has proved otherwise. Foreign policy may be formed according to changes in the mentalities of the political leaders. How those changes react to produce certain foreign policy? Under any conditions, some of those changeable factors may become main factors of interpreting the foreign policy.

            Boundaries of the Palestinian foreign policy include a number of determined factors to include (geographic, natural, national, and demographic) and the changeable factors include (level of economic development, governmental regime, and military spirit).

Sixth: The Making of the Palestinian Foreign Policy:

The making of the Palestinian foreign policy has become inseparable part of the entire entity of the foreign policy. Thus, there rises a question: Is there a certain Palestinian authority that forms the Palestinian foreign policy? Is it the office of the President? Is it the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation? Is it PLO Political Circle in Tunis? Is it the Department of Arab and International Relations in the Palestinian Liberation Movement -- Fatah? Is it the Orient House in Jerusalem? Is it the Department of Negotiations? What is the role of the legislative Authority? Is there a role for NGOs? All those questions need a deep consideration and study. It can be said that it could be imagined establishing a Unit for making the Palestinian foreign policy to represent all those parties concerned.

            Speech about making the Palestinian foreign policy can be viewed in two main directions:

First: Departments that make the Palestinian foreign policy.

Second: Departments included in the Palestinian foreign policy especially in the geographic locations all over the world.

            Those situations need imagination of policy concepts either at macro level or micro level. This needs framework of concepts for the Palestinian foreign policy in detail and in a context different from the context of the general framework.

Seventh: Tools of the Palestinian Foreign Policy:

It is imaginable that the agreements and accords may lead to political and military restrictions, and economic problems will encounter the Palestinian State. But it is still that the Palestinians need some tools to achieve the objectives of the Palestinian foreign policy. This includes diplomatic tools ( diplomacy of development), media tool to speak to the public, and peace tool to deal with the neighbors.

            The adequate strategy to use the diplomatic tool for achieving economic development can be viewed in increasing the Palestinian political efforts to acquire regional and international status depending the internal stability.

Eighth: Distribution of Palestinian Foreign Policy:

This means the distribution of the interests of those policies between the various countries and the other international Units. Theoretically speaking, the Palestinian foreign policy could be studied quantitatively through two main rations:

First: Selection Ration: It is a scale to show the degree of distributing the foreign policy between various international units. Selection ration of the Palestinian Unit is the number of international units that received foreign conduct in Palestine.

Second: Salience Ration: It determines the direction of the new Palestinian policy. The significance of such a ration towards the Unit/State (B) is:

Overall behavior of Palestinian foreign policy towards Unit/State (B)

Overall behavior of Palestinian foreign policy

Ninth: Continuity and Alteration in Palestinian Foreign Policy:

Charles Hermann differentiated between four types of alterations in the foreign policy: (1) Quantitation alternation (2) Program alternation (3) Objectives alternation (4) Foreign policy trends alternations.

            Hermann believes that the first type of alternations is not considered a change in the politics whereas the other three types could be classified in the framework of alternations in the foreign policy.

            Alternation in the foreign policy has never occurred suddenly but rather gradually. Governments determine the main objectives of their foreign policy and connect with minor changes in the secondary goals of their policy.

Section Three

Planning of the Palestinian Foreign Policy

First: Palestinian Foreign Policy Planning:

Policy planning is a relatively new concept. In 1947 USA Foreign Office created a “Group for Planning Regional Policy” to deal with post-war changes. Afterwards, this experiment was followed by many countries like Britain, France and Canada. In 1955 the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs set up a “Political Planning Committee.”

            Palestinian foreign policy gets unprecedented complication in its formation due to the diversity of the Palestinian foreign policy, the increase in the relative importance of the economic issues, the appearance of new international units and the continuous change in the internal and external alternatives. Therefore, new burdens have been placed on the departments of foreign policy-making. The following table explains the mutual dependence on the foreign policy:

Mutual dependence and its effects on the Palestinian foreign policy

Characteristics of mutual exchange

Expected results on the foreign policy

Multiple and varied issues and regions related to the foreign policy

New burdens on the departments of foreign policy

Dominance of economic issues on the agenda of foreign policy

Need of economic expertise in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the increase of the role of the Ministry of Economics in the foreign policy

Politicizing foreign policy and stopping separating between external and internal policies

More reaction between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the internal political powers, and their interference in the foreign policy

Emergence of new international and national activists in the field of foreign policy

Decrease the capabilities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to coordinate the foreign policy

 

Second: Concepts of Foreign Policy Planning: Theoretical Introduction:

There are several political streams to define a concept of foreign policy planning:

First is the narrow political planning which becomes equivalent to the concept of problem solving.

Second is the confirmation of the process of altering the future as a core of foreign policy planning.

Third is the dimension of planning at the institutional level.

Fourth is viewing the foreign policy planning according to the definition of political economy planning.

Fifth is considering the historical analytical aspect of planning.

Sixth is viewing the foreign policy structural planning. This includes four aspects as follows: conceptualization, anticipation, post-auditing, and challenge      

Third: Palestinian Foreign Policy Planning is Compound:

Reading the pre-mentioned definitions makes it clear that the Palestinian policy planning in compound by nature. It includes analyzing its historical development to understand its types and the probabilities of its development and the anticipation of the future. Thus, working out defined programs that deal with futuristic issues in the framework of the general objectives which have been framed by the foreign policy makers. Then giving advice to foreign policy-makers in certain issues. Depending on this situation, foreign policy planning includes several dimensions as follows:

First: General planning of foreign policy. This suggests working out foreign policy strategies to accommodate with the capabilities of the state.

Second: Program planning. This suggests setting up plans for special cases.

Third: Emergency planning. This suggests setting plans for any futuristic emergency case.

Fourth: Institution planning. This suggests coordinating the duties of the institutions working in the field of the Palestinian foreign policy, and organizing its system.

Fifth: Obstacles facing the Palestinian foreign policy planning.

The process of foreign policy planning encounters a number of problems, some of which come as a result of the foreign policy, in general, whereas some others are related to difficulties of foreign policy planning in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Among those difficulties that encounter the Palestinian policy planning are the following:

First: Foreign policy is uncertain.

Second: Mastery of international arena, and complications and shifting of interests.

Third: Multiplicity of foreign policy crises.

Fourth: Uncertainly of means of foreign policy.

Fifth: Palestinian foreign policy multi-institutions.

Fifth: Palestinian Foreign Policy between Planning and Process Planning:

Of the most significant difficulties of planning is the difficulty of establishing a long term comprehensive central planning like the case of political economic planning or economic political planning. Therefore, foreign policy planning is described as a process planning rather than planning which means blue-print planning.

Sixth: Planning between Political Planner and Diplomatic Executor: role distribution between the planner and the executor:

The process of planning the foreign policy encounters another hardship related to the diplomatic function, in general. The diplomatic mission stresses the urgent cases whereas the planning process considers futuristic cases. Anyhow, role distribution may solve the problem. Political planners concern themselves with defining the problem concerned, then they set up objectives and strategies, and select policies. Those matters are not the concern of the diplomat as s/he fulfills policies worked out by the leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

            Developing countries, in general, suffer from a weakness in the structure of their institutions that are supposed to gather and analyze information, data, and find alternative plans. Some other countries suffer from their economic dependence. Palestinian planning supposes maneuverability at the international level and thus the capability of selecting from given alternatives.

Seventh: Scopes of Palestinian International Policy Planning:

Such planning includes three dimensions as follows:  

1- Institutional dimension. It is related to the Palestinian foreign policy planning departments. This situation needs harmony of work between the minister of foreign affairs and the departments under him, and another harmony between the departments themselves.

2- Conceptual dimension. It is related to tools and approaches of the Palestinian international policy planning. This situation needs establishing a number of concepts and criteria in the departments of the Palestinian foreign policy. The structure of those departments has to be adequate for those meanings which include the plurality, multiple advocacy, the devil’s advocate, etc. It also must have data system and advanced archives system. They have to depend upon futurology and practice game theory.

3- Objective dimension. It is related to the conditions of mature Palestinian international policy planning. This situation has to start from the internal socio-economic background of the Palestinian State. When these background is weak, one cannot dream of planning except of a limited and partial role. This is simply because this weakness gives opportunities for external interference, a matter which will weaken planning capabilities and execution.

Section Four

General Principles Governing Relations between Countries According to the International Law, which

the Palestinian State will Follow

 

This includes the rights and duties as mentioned in the international law.

1- The fundamental rights of the international law are applicable to the Palestinian State. They are (1) Right of existence. (2) Right of freedom, independence and full supremacy. (3) Right of equality. (4) Right of mutual respect. 

2- The legal duties of the international law on the State are applicable to the Palestinian State. The legal duties are unlike the moral duties. They are the duties that may be forced on States, according to the international law. Such duties include the following:

(1) Respect the international laws in the relations between countries.

(2) Settle international disputes by peaceful means following rules of law and justice.

(3) No interference in the internal or external affairs of the other States.

(4) No support for any country involved in a war or using force for illegal purposes, or for any State that UN has taken a compulsory decision against it (article 7 in UN convention).

(5) Abstain from recognizing any regional gains by war or by illegal use of force.

(6) Abstain from encouraging civil rebellions in regions of other States.

(7) Guarantee conditions of any State to keep peace and international law.

(8) Respect human rights and the fundamental freedom of the individuals under another State, regardless of their sex, language or religion.

(9) Implement, in good well, requirements of the treaties and other sources of international law.

(10) No resort to war or illegal use of force.

(11) No resort to raise internal disturbances in regions of other countries.

(12) Maintain good relations with other States according to the international law and the principles of the rule of law.

3- Moral obligations applicable to the Palestinian State. The moral obligations are based upon the idea of justice, human behavior and social concern. It does not constitute international legal obligation. However, the Palestinian State will comply with those moral duties in its relationship with the neighboring countries. Of those obligations are the following:

(1) Support countries that suffer from natural disasters.

(2) Cooperate at the international level to improve the general health conditions by taking part in the campaigns against diseases and epidemics.

(3) Solidity against crime and extradite wanted criminals and fugitives to their countries through programs of crime detection.

(4) Permit needy ships to use its sea-ports and help in their maintenance and fueling when needed.

(5) All States have to pay mutual respect to each other and keep up to their promises and respect their agreements.

Conclusion

This study aimed at shedding light on the outlines of the foreign policy of the Palestinian State. Author attempted to mix between the theoretical framework and the reality of life. For this purpose, he consulted many references.

            Reader may question the futuristic relationship between the Palestinian State and PLO. In reality, I have to start from the obvious assumption that the sovereign Palestinian State must not have another representative. Therefore, PLO may remain to play a role identical to that role played by the Jewish Agency. Its relationship with the Palestinian State could be organized to achieve a comprehensive role between the two Palestinian parties. Also, the ploitical leadership can see dismantling PLO because its role is no longer needed after creating a sovereign independent State.

            In the end, author believes that the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation constitutes a de facto Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Thus, the department of international cooperation in the ministry constitutes a core of the Palestinian Foreign Ministry. Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, Dr. Nabeel Shaath, has succeeded in playing the role of the Foreign Minister of State of Palestine. This, of course, does not minimize the roles played by other reliable Palestinian parties internally and externally.

 

 





تعليق طباعة عودة للخلف

عدد القراء: 1673

عدد التعليقات: 0
مواضيع ذات صلة

 

        تعليقات الزوار

Contact Us

feel free to contact us at our Email : kamaltopic@gmail.com

Dr. Kamal Mobile is :+970599843850

رؤية وأهداف

نهدف من خلال موقعنا إلى تزويد الطلاب والباحثين والمهتمين بخدمات علمية مجانية عالية المستوى ونشر أبحاث ودراسات اكاديمية

الدكتور كمال الأسطل,

Missiion Statement

Our goal is to provide students, researchers and interested people with high standard, free of charge scientific services and to publish academic researches.

Kamal Astal,